Maybe More Better Tech in Math & School?

Sigh. It’s tough to disagree with Fawn Nguyen. (

She wrote, in particular:

I want them talking and interacting more than anything! Learning mathematics is a social endeavor. Here’s my perennial classroom routine, “Turn and talk with your neighbor.” I want to bring back the arts of speaking and listening, reading and writing, debating and presenting.

Now, if you’ve ever dropped by my class (and, thanks to #ObserveMe you’re always welcome to! I just realized, I never wrote about #ObserveMe … something to correct over this March Break) you’lll notice a lot of devices.

My classroom has 1:1 pen-based Win10 TabletPCs — everyhone thinks of “Surfaces” but they’re actually made by Fujitsu.
My classroom has OneNote, which captures as much as everything that gets written and a part of what gets said/displayed/acted out using audio/video capture.
This means we have access to digital ink – so everything that I write or students write become part of the conversation – it’s captured and it’s collaborative and it’s archived.
And of course it has many of the other add-ons that other folks use: A projector. Desmos, GeoGebra, Excel, Wolfram-Alpha, DeltaMath, Camtasia, etc.  But not a lot. We don’t spend a lot of time (and don’t have the money) bringing in special applications or web-apps — the focus is on doing math with good tools. Tools that emphasize students constructing mathematics and sharing their ideas.
But seriously… it’s the first two that make ALL THE DIFFERENCE.  And it’s what Fawn is missing out on. When you choose technologies that extend naturally out from paper, that promote sharing, the capture without any additional thought, you increase the power of your learning space and build a powerful sharing community. A mobile, & often personal, device using GoogleDocs isn’t going to do that.

Our classroom is primarily a place of discussion, writing, debating & presenting. A lot of writing. A lot of presenting. And the technology supports that.  The walls that are covered in whiteboard and the moveable desks that are writeable/eraseable support that and OneNote takes care of the easy capture/sharing/archiving of that information, too! And once in OneNote they can continue to build on it freely using digital ink.
Make deliberate choices about technology in the same way as you make deliberate choices about problems — low floor, high ceiling.

So the question posed to her was “How do u incorporate tech into a lesson?

  • You incorporate technology into a lesson to boost opportunities for students to collaborate. 
  • You incorporate technology into a lesson to encourage & expand their creativity.
  • You incorporate technology into a lesson to capture & share & build on their ideas without thinking about how they have to capture & share & build on their ideas

And this just isn’t my class — this is across our school.

    Technology isn’t some icing that you put on the cake. It’s included with the rest of the ingredients, mixed properly so that the CO2 bubbles lifts the cake.
    Too often, with the wrong technology, you get a flat cake that nobody enjoys eating, and all the icing won’t make it better. You force them into methods that get in the way of learning. You throw raisins into a perfectly good cake. You make them use keyboard-only devices that get in the way of the mathematics. You use software tools that isolate students into a smaller space or emphasize the wrong behaviours, instead of broadening and opening up their ideas to others.
    People (and I’m looking at administrators, tech folks, thought leaders) have pushed the wrong technology into classrooms in an effort to bridge the digital divide.  Instead they have put us in this isolated-learner interregnum with the wrong tools that Fawn decries.  It will end, but not by reducing the technology but by choosing the right ones.
    Your technology should be invisible. It should flow between spaces without barriers.
    And as for dinner, for me, it’s a non-technology space because we come together to break bread and enjoy each other’s company. Bring out the devices after the cake.

    Party On (Outlook), Garth!

    So… say you wanted to have a party… but what’s the right time to have it?
    Office365 Outlook (free for all teachers & students!) will let you poll people to decide when’s the right time to meet. You need to use Outlook-on-the-web though.  Now Outlook-on-the-web is actually a pretty good Outlook and has the same information that your Desktop Outlook has — same mail, same calendar, just in a more web-active environment. Some of my faculty use Outlook-on-the-web as their main client because it’s so powerful and has some nice options (like this polling feature!)

    Visit and click on the Calendar icon at the bottom of that page, or click on the CALENDAR button when visiting … or click on the Waffle & choose Calendar. So many different routes to get there — it’s always a great surprise to me when someone shows me a different way!

    When you click NEW you can then click POLL FOR A TIME TO MEET and create a poll for your friends (colleagues, students, teachers, employees, etc) to find a time that works for everybody.
    1. Give a name to the event (this appears as your Subject, so try to be clear & specific)
    2. Where is it going to happen? Notice you can create an online meeting… you get a Skype Room Link in the Calendar event to click on which gives you an online audio/video/whiteboard call in Skype.
    3. What times are convenient? Add at least two times for people to vote on. For every time you add, there will be a HOLD placed in your guests’ calendar until you decide on a final time. I find this really helpful so I don’t fill in something else in the meantime.
    4. Give some longer description… why is this happening? What are things to consider about what time they choose?
    5. Add People – they will get an email asking them to vote on what are the best times.

    Once everyone has voted (you’ll be updated as they are) – or you’re ready to make the decision, click on any of the HOLD calendar entries in your Calendar (again — gotta be in online Outlook) and you will be able to choose the decided-upon time and email everyone. All the other “hold” entries will disappear from your Calendar.
    Remember… this is only in not Desktop Outlook.

    Say, can you see?

    So there comes a time when you’re presenting (or you know, you’re old) and you want to zoom in on an area of the screen.  
    Press the Windows + Plus (+) on the keyboard to turn the built-in Magnifier on. Then, you can press Windows + Esc to turn it off.

    Now we use a Fujitsu pen-based TabletPC when means we can write on the screen with a pen or tap the screen in the place of a mouse.  Here’s a video run-down of how that works on a touch screen — this definitely the preferred & quickest way to get around!

    When you’re on a touch/pen device, to zoom in and out you can tap on the plus (+) and minus (-) symbols on the corners of the screen. To move around the screen, drag along the borders of the screen in full screen view.

    To instantly zoom out and see where you are on the screen, tap with one finger on opposite borders of the screen simultaneously.

    Now, if you’re not using a pen/touch enabled device (and you should be!) you can still use the magnifier.  Go ahead with the  Windows + Plus (+) keypress and you’ll get the magnifier. There are three modes — I prefer the LENS option, which gives you a rectangular magnifying glass you can rove around the screen with.
    Use your mouse to rove around the screen with the Lens — if you put your mouse over top of the Magnifier menu, you can interact with its options.

     And, you can always press Windows + Esc to turn the magnifier off.

    Emojis … Windows Full Stop

    You know that when you’re typing in any application (Word, Outlook, OneNote for example) you can press WINDOWS & PERIOD to pull up your Emoji keyboard. 👍

    Click on the Magnifying Glass and you can type a word to quickly find the right emoji. Or you can click through all the other options available on the bottom menu bar.

    If you choose the PEOPLE tab, in the upper right corner you can find the Skin Hue option, so that you’re not just showing Simpsons characters.

    Wait, you say… WINDOWS PERIOD doesn’t give you an Emoji keyboard? You should update your Windows10! If you can’t, you can go Old-School (which works in older versions of Win10):

    1. Right click your taskbar and select Show touch keyboard button (if it isn’t already ticked). This will place a new keyboard icon (shown above) within your taskbar’s notification area.
    2. Click this keyboard icon and a keyboard will appear on your screen. You’ll then see a smiley face button for the emojis.
    You can also put these emojis in your OneNote Page, Section or NoteBook names!

    Use it to organize your work as you go through material…

    Or to acknowledge completion of a particular task

    Break a 🍗!

    Reading is FUNdamental-ly EDGEy

    So sitting at lunch the other day, one of my colleagues was muttering about all the reading she had to do for a course and wished she could buy audiobooks for all of her readings. Well, I stuck my nose in her business.
    Microsoft Edge will let you read an ePUB book in a cleaned-up and paper-like window, letting you change the text size, spacing, font & colour.  For small children and, umm, older folks, this is a great option!  
    There is a quick Chapter button letting you quickly move around the book, and a Bookmark feature that lets you keep track of interesting pieces of your reading.  
    In more recent versions of Windows you also get option of highlighting texts, inserting notes inside the text and, of course, asking Cortana anything, which pulls up definitions, other references, etc. (If you’ve been working with Microsoft tools, you know that AI is being built into everything).

    But for her purpose, I shared that Edge will also Read Aloud to you. You can control the speed at which the reading occurs so that you can accelerate your content acquisition like speeding up a YouTube video.

    You can download additional voices if you prefer a regional accent or want another language.  Instructions are here.  Unfortunately, they only have American & British speakers, not Canadian. I don’t know what that’s aboot.

    Need a particular book? Check – it’s a large collection of public domain and free books.  And a quick search will pull up other free resourcees.  There is a book-store specifically for eBooks from Microsoft.  I haven’t used it yet (mostly because I’m on a moratorium from buying books — there’s too many on my bedside table already — and I’m broke).

    With PDFs, you get the option of reading it as a PDF or as a BOOK format. You don’t get the Bookmarks or Chapter layout however and the text size is controlled by the PDF so you have to use the +/- zoom.

    The option for Read Aloud will work for PDFs; you get the same Read icon on the toolbar when the PDF opens.

     Now, most of us have other apps set up to read PDFs, so just right click & choose to open the PDF with Microsoft Edge and you’re off!

    I did write this up as a “Things to Learn on the Loo” poster.

    Using Assignments in Microsoft Teams

    So everything we do is in OneNote. Everything. But we (okay, me) are trying to break out into other tools and that includes Microsoft Teams and their Assignment workflow.  What I tried was this:
    1) In a Word document we wrote about what they had to do and how they would be assessed.

    Parenthetically — Word works GREAT with Teams! I have a Channel in our Math Department Team for our MPM2D course and we created the Word document in there and then collaboratively edited it on our own devices at our own pace. I prefer to use my desktop at home and when I opened Word, it went to Teams on its own and grabbed the file and I could continue to edit.  Nice!

    2) Then I went to the TEAM for my course and created an Assignment.  Now, Teams lets you assign an Assignment to more than one section at a time, which is nice cuz I’ve got 3. 

    This got posted to their Assignments page and they were off! Okay, it was a little funny; this was the first time I had given them an Assignment through Teams, so bells & notices start flying up when I did it.  Hard for any kid to say “I didn’t know what I had to do” when 3 different lights go off — and reminders when it’s about due.
    About 25% of them ended up writing all of their work in OneNote anyways and then doing a ScreenShot into the Word Document — which worked really well.  
    3) It was really easy to manage the Assignments… I could go into the Team itself and click on the View Assignment link (as above) or go into the ASSIGNMENTS button on the left of the Teams screen and see all the assignments.  As with the students, there is more than one way to get at things — makes it impossible not to find things!  
    And please don’t worry about all the missed assignments — this time of year we have 1/4 to 1/3 of our Grade 10 classes out for various reasons.

    When it came time to sit down with them and talk about their question, I went to the REVIEW part of Assignments and got the whole class list with links to all of their Word Documents.  I still had a few people adjusting to the system, so I had to go into their OneNotes to look at their question (the first student in the list below) but next time will be better.
    I like that I can click on Export to Excel to get the results but it REALLY NEEDS TO INCLUDE ALL THE FEEDBACK.  (Microsoft Teams is NOT like the OneNote group at Microsoft — they’re pretty slow at accepting input and are not active at all on Twitter.  Well, their marketing is, just not their customer support).
    Since Teams Assignments don’t yet do rubrics, I used the Feedback Section to give them both their rubric scores and any written feedback that was appropriate.  It worked pretty well in this case because it was an interview and I just typed what I said to them as we talked.  And of course, it’s now stored in their Teams Assignment collection.
    I look forward to when Teams gives us more options with OneNote pages — and when we can do rubrics, since most of our assessment is done with a rubric than just a single point. 
    The most interesting feedback was from a student who said “I like this better than the _A tab in OneNote” (explained here). So we’ll see when it’s more broadly used the consensus.  For teacher feedback, definitely the OneNote path is more effective and gives more effective and in-place feedback.  But then, students don’t always want to get what’s actually best for them.  🙂

    Back to the BreakOut

    So, long story short, we have a bit of extra time in our Right-Angle Trigonometry unit, so I mentioned to my team that I would put together a BreakOut for review.  During this time, we have a lot of kids away for various reasons so having something self-paced is helpful.
    You can read more about creating BreakOut/EscapeRooms in OneNote on my earlier post here: Escape Room / BreakOut in OneNote – even if you don’t use OneNote in your school, you could do this with a Personal OneNote.  All you have to do is create a view-only Share with your class and they can view it online!  Even on their phones!

    I first made a OneNote Notebook and shared it with the other members of my team. I had hoped that they would contribute but only one jumped on board and added some questions — not upset though. There’s a lot of things that happen at my school, so I just lay out breadcrumbs and see who’s hungry enough to follow.
    In this Notebook, I created 5 Sections – each section is a “Room” in the EscapeRoom process.  There’s the first Section, which lays out the instructions and gives the first set of questions and then each room after that is locked (via Password), requiring them to answers all the questions (correctly!) to get the password that will let them in.
    All-in-all, it took me about 2-3 hours to make the 5-room BreakOut.  And, as always, it was a little too long.  I was also watching a movie at the time, so that time is likely an upper bound.

    Room 1: The instructions & the first set of questions.
    So my colleague began by following my instructions in my earlier blog post.  He even filled in the password he wanted.
    1) Create a table at the top to put the password in (when you’re ready to distribute the OneNote, you’ll delete this).
    2) Drop some multiple choice questions on the page, change their answer letters to a pattern that will give you the password and arrange them as needed.

    That took care of the first room.  The next rooms I tried to do some different things.
    In Room 2, I required them to answer four questions stolen from some textbook in Right Angle Trig and then find the weighted average of those answers to get the password.  Now, they didn’t know what the weighted average was, so they had to go onto the web and find it.

    Room 3 – four more stolen questions where they just find the sum of the answers (I can’t always make them do additional work, can I?)
    Room 4 – Now, this was my favourite page — and it intimidated them to start.  It looks really challenging but the questions themselves were read-and-answer; there was really little thinking involved.  I re-purposed a trig activity page … it was a LONG code and a number of students did go astray but even they acknowledged the other pages were better review.

    Room 5 – Another re-purposed activity, and it was really popular with a sub-set of students who actively coloured the design.

    So now that everything was in place, I copied all of the passwords and put them in a Microsoft Teams message to my Grade 10 team (so we wouldn’t forget them!) and then went back in and got rid of the passwords from the pages themselves.  Then, in OneNote2016, I went to FILE–>EXPORT and exported it as a OneNote package and put it in my OneDrive.  I created a View-only Sharing Link and give the link to all my students in their ClassNotebook.  They click, it opened the package in their OneNote program and they were good to go.
    If you don’t have OneNote2016 or don’t want to do it this way, you could just create a View-Only sharing link to your BreakOut OneNote and give the students that.  It would work just as well, and to be honest, I’m trying to think of an argument for not doing it that way 🙂
    I would do this again. I liked the idea of adding additional mathematics onto the problems and re-purposing existing activities worked out really well.  The first BreakOut was mostly multiple choice  questions and I think adding in longer solution problems was a more effective review and more interesting BreakOut.
    And I’m always looking for evidence that these are effective and engaging.  Effective is hard to tease out — they’re definitely doing problems, talking about the content, making errors and fixing them, exploring new content (weighted average) — and almost no one was off-task the entire hour.

    If you’d like, the file is here: OneNote Package for Breakout


    A few years ago there was a great Twitter hashtag #NeedARedStamp about errors that students continually make and how it would be easier to just stamp your usual response on their papers.  Check ’em out here!

    I need a red stamp.  But not for kids’ math papers.

    Everybody and their cousin has tweeted the latest  (in this case NYTimes) opinion piece “Laptops are great. But not during a lecture or meeting” at me.  And quite frankly, I’m too busy doing real work to spend a lot of time on a response.  So I include below a response I wrote earlier this summer as part of a discussion on another professor that said the same thing. I think I buried the lede, so I’ve bolded it in this posting.

    And I haven’t even dug into the #digitalink possibilities that these professors ignore in their ham-fisted “device bad” response.

    [personal references omitted]

    You’re likely speaking to the wrong group – I doubt that most of our pedagogies rely on the passive student lecture to have students write down notes; moving away from lectures improves student retention of content (viz National Academy of Sciences 111(23)  Science 12May2014  Journal Engineering Ed 93(3) etc) and almost every class I observe at my school and others rarely has them sitting taking notes – and if they do, the lecture and the note-taking is purposeful, deliberate and meaningful.

    In the West Point study, the lecturers made no modifications to their role, so in large part the laptop (not pen-based tablet) had as much purpose as giving the students a fidget spinner and, as expected, had a similar effect.  There was no attempt whatsoever by the lecturer at taking advantage of the aspects of the laptop that we would make for bringing the device into the classroom in the first place (in fact, the authors are proud of that), and specifically no assistance to the student on how to use it effectively.  That’s why most of us provided teachers with the device first before moving to a school wide implementation; without a classroom that takes on the device as an active partner that needs to work with the student, it will only serve the base interests of the students.  They (both teachers & students) must be shown models and discuss how to use the technology for learning.  Otherwise, it will be used (honestly, by both teacher & students) what their personal devices are used for – personal communication, gaming and satisfying random flickers of non-curriculum-based curiosity.  Without some coaching, most folks can seldom find ways to use technology to improve the management aspects of their lives let alone the far more complex process of learning.

    When they analyze the exam scores, they point out that computer active students perform poorer on the multiple choice & short answer – those questions that asked for specific knowledge that a student may miss if distracted or typing notes or trying to connect their laptop notes with drawn diagrams (the argument for digital ink).  I think we’ve all experienced how well students immersed in a digital ink environment take full advantage of the sketch-ability of their notes, with extensive use of diagrams, highlighting, arrows, etc to make connections that on a keyboard-only device are impossible.  Darling-Hammond (and so many others) made it clear that students need to literally and figuratively make connections between and amongst things they are intended to learn and the notes they made have made on a laptop are disconnected from much of the non-text based content.  (Speaking to the converted, it’s why we all use OneNote.)

    As for your student-use-after-graduation, it reflects my own observations as well – that once our students leave our deliberately constructed environment chosen specifically to maximize learning (of content, skills and behaviors) and are placed in the university, they fall back decades in pedagogical and technological progress.  There are huge issues in professors’ approach to, and understanding of, how people learn let alone how they might use technology to learn (yes, there is the occasional bright spot; locally, McMaster University medical doctors have used problem-based learning and case studies for decades).  [personal reference omitted]… professors want systemic control and uniformity, and a passive student who will listen, take notes and ask a good question perhaps.  Experimentation in active learning pedagogies involving technologies is not an interest.

    Having said that, students have experienced four years (or there-abouts) of an environment where they’ve been encouraged to sketch their ideas, make connnections, collaborate with others, dive deeper into their content through the use of external sources, find experts and otherwise trained in ways to take advantage of the technologies they’re familiar with, even if some of it is now based on paper.  It is my hope (I have no research) that the initial advantage they carry they put to good effect.


    “Geez, it’s so easy!” – Skype for Business for Education

    I had a teacher message me on Monday saying that he was having a guest talk to his class from Bogotá, Colombia and what would be the best way to web-conference with her and record it?  

    The absolute easiest way for anybody to do that is with Skype4Business, a business-level version of Skype  — it’s surprising robust with weak internet connections and provides almost any option you’d expect for web-conferencing.  We have used it each summer to teach French and now Math to students around the world.
    The result today … he runs up and says “Geez, it’s so easy!”

    Office365 — the Microsoft productivity infrastructure — is free to schools, and Skype4Business (Skype4B) is included in that, Don’t worry about the “business” nomenclature… it’s got the teaching add-ins you’d expect like screensharing, attachments, colalborative Word/OneNotes, quizzes/surveys all built-in.

    Here’s the guide I gave him:
    1) Head on over to Office365 — 

    2) Click on Outlook

    3) Click on NEW and then choose CALENDAR EVENT.  
    4) You get  your regular Appointment window … but now you want to click on ADD SKYPE MEETING

    5) After you click ADD SKYPE MEETING, the location is set to “Online Location”.  When you hit SAVE (or after adding people to the call, you can click SEND) the next time you open the Event, you will get the link to the Chat Room.

    Notice that you can just create the Skype Meeting with no one invited and just share the link with whomever you want, outside of the Outlook event scheduling.

    If you’ve invited your guests to the event inside of Outlook, they’ll receive the link to the Skype4B room anyways.  But you can just copy the link and paste it into a Word document, a OneNote (as we do with the online math/French courses) or just email or tweet it out.

    When anyone clicks on the link, they’ll get the option to use the Skype4B client or download the web-app.

    When YOU open the the meeting YOU need to use the Skype4Business client because that’s how you get the option to record a meeting.  When you start the meeting in the S4B client, you can click on the 3-dot menu in the lower right corner and choose START RECORDING.  It will create a cloud-based MP4 of all the audio & screensharing that goes on in the meeting.  You’ll be able to see all of your meetings by clicking on the 3-dot menu and choosing MANAGE RECORDINGS.

    Your participants do not need the Skype4Business client, nor do they need a Microsoft or Offic365 account.  When they click on the link, they have the option of installing the WebClient (Mac or PC), or there are mobile phone apps that the links will open as well.
    A really handy thing to know about the link you created — it’s active for A YEAR from the last time you used it..  So when I did my summer online math course, I created one link that we used all summer and we used it for our 4-hour class each morning and any math extra help that was needed throughout the rest of the day.
    One last comment.  We did do a test of Zoom alongside Skype4B — Zoom did have a better quality audio over Skype4B, but video & screen sharing was better on Skype4B, and Zoom looked a little simpler for new users.  But, given the unlimited time and recording available through Skype4B — teachers shouldn’t have to think about limitations; Zoom only gives you 40 minutes of meeting time and our classes are 60 minutes, for examples, and my summer classes were 4 hours! — and how it integrated into our exisiting Office365 structure, users should be encouraged to take advantage of that integration & power.  Over time, Skype4B is being integrated even deeper into Microsoft’s Team software, and the linkages between Skype4B and Office365 applications will be even stronger.

    BYOD. It’s not about the device until it’s the device.

    I had a great conversation today with a tech director who was asking how we dealt with our 1:1 program and what my thoughts were on BYOD.  So I thought I write my thoughts down here as well.
    We have been 1:1 since 1998 – now, I didn’t start at Appleby until 2001 but all my previous schools since 1996 were 1:1 so I consider it a continuous experience.  We cycle our devices every two years; we considered moving to a 3-year-cycle but our devices get so much use that they begin to display signs of extreme use by the end of the 2nd year that it seems to be a trade off of keeping them serviced versus a new device.
    When we sit down to think about the new device, we do debate, “Should we go BYOD?” and both the IT side and the Classroom side bring forth arguments. Invariably we realize we can’t go BYOD without damaging what happens in the classroom.
    We use our devices essentially every minute of the academic day, and then whenever we do work outside of class.  All, and I mean ALL of our teacher & student work are on our devices – not just assignments, not just essays or worksheets.  ALL.  If I want to know what Johnny did on question 3b of his math homework from Tuesday, October 3rd, I go look at it in the OneNote. If a teacher wants to know how a student was playing the cello on the same day, they play the audio/video. What did they mark up on their map of Canada in their Canadian History class last week? It’s all there. It’s not like a Chromebook or Mac, where you only record their typed work occasionally — all of their scribbles, their annotations, are captured.
    What I’m trying to indicate is that we depend on our devices to be in continuous use. Today I had a student lost her laptop’s pen — I always carry an extra one. Another didn’t have a charger – I shared mine. Being able to share and swap within the classroom makes life a lot easier. Students (and faculty) forget things.  They need to have their device in front of them from the start of the school through the end of the school day, onto the buses and to home.
    And then there’s classroom management – when I say put in tablet mode, they all do the same thing (swing the screen around and it lies flat so they can’t access the keyboard and have to use the pen). There’s a community understanding across classes of how we work with our devices that supports students (and teachers) especially as they begin the school year.  There is a strength in everyone being able to support everyone else.
    So when you do BYOD you agree that you are not going to maximize the possible use of the devices as faculty and student juggle the disparity between experiences – so the argument that schools save money by not going 1:1 with the same device is questionable.   It may not be easily counted, but the cost (time & frustration) should be noted.
    Take the example from today… there are (at least) two different types of digital ink pens. My student would have been out of luck. There are tonnes of different types of adapters, in voltage, amperage and plug – my student would have been out of luck.  When they have to go to IT, who fixes the device, how do they get a loaner, how do they transition back to their old device if they’re not the same?
    I always refer to the situation we experienced with calculators – there are two different ways calculators will do square roots and trigonometry, and then huge variations in how they do more complicated tasks like linear regression or statistical analysis. By standardizing the device, mathematics teachers could focus on the learning and not the device.  Geography teachers should be allowed to focus on their learning goals, not wondering how StudentA will do a task that StudentB can do easily.  Differentiation of content and process is already a challenge, we don’t need to layer differentiation of device at the same time.  BYOD adds unnecessary workload to a teacher already overwhelmed.
    I remember being on a panel and the teacher who used BYOD made the arguments that (a) the student knows their device — well, they know how to use their device for personal use, not necessarily for academic and so still have to be shown how to use it in that fashion, either by teachers or other students and (b) that being able to adapt to different devices is important — our students adapt every 2 years anyways and will continue to adapt throughout their life experience, in and out of school.
    I understand the BYOD choice is often made by schools who can’t afford a 1:1 program — they want to get technology into their students & teachers hands.  But, if your school really wants to deeply & meaningful embed technology into your school, standardize the device.  Put the cognitive load onto problems, not juggling different devices.